VASILE CHIRICA, BOGDAN MINEA,
Mitoc-Malu Galben – Le niveau IV Gravettien. Ateliers de taille du silex. Éléments de technologie et de typologie lithique
(Mitoc-Malu Galben – The 4th Gravettian level. Flint knapping workshops. Elements of stone technology and typology)
The paleolithic site of Mitoc, with five inhabitation levels and with the following Aurignacian lithic assemblages: A I lower, A I, A II, III et A III upper and cinq Gravettian inhabitation levels and lithic assemblages: Gr. I, Gr. II, Gr. III, Gr. IV and Gr. IV dispersed. The paper brings into discussion the presence of several knapping workshops, identified within the stratigraphic space of the level Gravettian IV, but also the finds of the inhabitation level, this allowing to demonstrate a very long human occupation period, including an installation continuity of the camping sites and of the essential occupation of the human communities: flint knapping. The level Gravettian IV is stratigraphically limited between 4,60–5,25 m, being therefore within the perimeter of sedimentation cycles 4a–5a. The paper provides specific information and details regarding the existence of outsourced raw materials: non-local flint, sandstone, marl, black schist of Audia, etc., thanks to which we can admit a much more intensive circulation of the Gravettian human communities of Mitoc, and also the arrival of other human communities which knapped their tools at Malu Galben in non-local flint (maybe Volynia flint, or flint from other geographic spaces, including the Dniester area). In the level Gravettian IV, we can notice the existence of a mixture of massive flakes, macrolithic blades, and also medium size, or svelte items, cortical or crested, in light gray flint, dark gray, light gray or black flint with white flint (Pl. I-XII). There are several types of flint, the usual one of Prut, the dark or light gray flint, sometimes even with a certain patina, but also other types: dark gray with white flint portions, light gray – brownish with darker portions, but with brownish – grayish stripes, as a drawing. The entire technico-typological Gravettien compound, and especially level IV can demonstrate technologically and typologically the existence of Aurignacian survivals in the Gravettian environment (Pl. I.1,4-6; Pl. II.1,3,4-6; Pl. III.3,6-7).
Keywords: Paleolithic; Gravettian; knapping workshop; lithic typology; sources of raw materials.
Fibule din secolele II-IV p. Chr. din complexul de fortificaţii Ibida (Slava Rusă, jud. Tulcea)
(2nd – 4th century AD Fibulae from the fortified complex of Ibida, Slava Rusă, Tulcea county)
The subject of the present paper is the technical and contextual analysis of nine fibulae from the fortified site of Ibida (Slava Rusă, Tulcea County), which are arrayed chronologically from the 2nd to the 4th century AD. These finds, together with other artifacts of the Late Roman fortification, contribute to the uncovering of some important aspects of daily life in Ibida, in a period about which we know almost nothing. Typology-wise, the group of finds consist of three strongly profiled fibulae, one Knee fibula, four fibulae with returned foot, and one Scheibenfibel, in cross. Most of these finds originate from well-defined archaeological levels, which dating is corroborated by other artifacts. The archaeological materials in question support the presence, in this area of Moesia Inferior province, of a civilian and/or military settlement during the classical Roman period. The other brooches are random finds, although one can safely assume that these originate in the same area of the fortified site of Ibida.
Keywords: Roman Ibida, strongly profiled brooches, Knee fibula, brooches with returned foot, Scheibenfibel.
LIA BĂTRÎNA, ADRIAN BĂTRÎNA, GHEORGHE SION,
O locuinţă de meşteşugar fierar din secolul al XV-lea descoperită la Baia, jud. Suceava
(A 15th century blacksmith’s dwelling uncovered in Baia, Suceava county)
We are continuing the publication of some older archeological researches performed by us in the „Catholic Church” section, from Baia (Suceava County), with the occasion of the consolidation works and the restoration of the ruins of the aforementioned worship place. During the archeological researches, in the north-east side of the choir apse of the church (B2), there have been identified the vestiges of five dwellings (LIII- LVII), which succeeded in time, between the year 1440 to the first half of the seventeenth century. With this occasion we will present the first dwelling (LIII), in chronological order. It is a dwelling specific to the type a little deepened in to the ground, consisting of six rooms (C1-C6) arranged in enfilade, with a total surface of 95,71 m2. The dereliction of the dwellingis due to a fire. The inventory objects – represented by various iron objects, ceramic pots, stove tiles and coins – found on the construction level or on the functioning level of the rooms, as well as in the stuffing of the deepened abandoned dwelling, proves the fact that the building functioned during the period covered between the year 1440 and December 1467. It is important to mention that during this period the dwelling was inhabited by a rich townsman who was successfully pursuing his profession of blacksmith.
Keywords: Moldavia, Baia (Suceava County), medieval town, fifteenth century, dwelling, blacksmith, iron objects, coins.
Descoperiri monetare din Moldova. IX
(Numismatic finds in Moldavia. IX)
We continue the regular publishing of the coins found in Moldavia, by presenting several ancient and medieval coins from various museum collections. The coins were discovered in the following locations: I. Bosanci (Suceava county) (1 AR, Antoninus Pius, 155–156); II. Dodești (Vaslui county) (1 AE, Maximianus Herculius, Antioch, 304–305; 1 AE, Constantinus I, Cyzicus, 328–329; 1 AE, Constantius II, Constantinople, 351–355); III. Iași (Iași county) (1 AE, dupondius, Hadrianus, 125–128); IV. Tăcuta (Vaslui county) (1 AR, Traianus, 100; 1 AR, subaeratus, Commodus–Severus Alexander;1 AE, Constantius II, Heraclea, 351–355; 1 AE, Constantius II, Thessalonica, 350–361; 1 AE, Valens, Thessalonica, 364–367; 1 AE, Valens, Constatinople, 364–375); V. Tătăruși (Iași county) (1 AR, Commodus, 183); VI. Cordăreni (Botoșani county)(20 AR, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth: Poland (9 AR): Zygmunt III Waza, trojaki, 1590, 1594, 1595 (2), 1597 (2); 1599 (2),1603; Lithuania (10 AR): Aleksander Jagiellończyk, półgrosze, 1495–1501; Zygmunt I Stary, półgrosze, 1518, 1524, 1526; Zygmunt II August, półgrosze, 1558, 1560, 1561, 1562 (2); Zygmunt III Waza, trojak, 1593; Riga (1 AR): Stefan Batory, trojak, 1586).
Keywords: coin finds, Moldavia, museum collections, ancient and medieval coins.
IRINA KARASHEVICH, ANA BOLDUREANU, LILIA DERGACIOVA,
Un lot de monede descoperite la Cetatea Albă, din colecţia Institutului de Arheologie al Academiei Naţionale de Ştiinţe a Ucrainei din Kiev
(A batch of coin finds from the fortress of Bilhorod on Dniester, in the collection of the Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in Kiev)
The authors are presenting 119 coin finds atested on the territory of the fortress of Bilhorod on the river Dniester (also called Tyras, Akdja Kerman, Asprokastron, Cetatea Albă, Akkerman). The numismatic material have been found during the archaeological excavations, supervised by L. D. Dmitrov in 1946-1947, 1949, 1950 and A. I. Furmanskaya in 1953, 1958-1962 on the South-East of glacis, on the coast of firth. The 119 coin specimens represent various monetary spaces and covered a wide time range. They were minted by Olbia (2 ex.), the Golden Horde (38 ex.), the Despotate of Epirus (1 ex.), the Moldovan medieval state (23 ex.), the Ottoman Empire and it’s imitations (43 ex.), the Crimean Khanate and it’s imitations (2 ex.), the Scotland (1 ex.); imitation of Netherland Thaler (1 ex.) and some unidentified issues (8 ex.).
Keywords: The Fortress of Bilhorod on Dniester, Medieval Numismatics, Tatar issues, Crimean issues, Moldovan issues, Ottoman issues.
SEVER-PETRU BOȚAN, LUCIAN MUNTEANU,
Medalii și decorații din colecția Institutului de Arheologie din Iași (III)
(Medals and decorations in the collections of the Institute of Archaeology in Iași. III)
In the present study the authors focus on the Austro-Hungarian medals and hat-pins that represent the most numerous group in the Institute of Archaeology’s collection. The 24 pieces cover mainly the First World War period but other commemorative or bravery medals are also to be found. On the other hand the hat pins offer a valuable source of information. Worn either by front troops or sold for war-funding, these insignia have a huge propagandistic value in justifying the fight against the enemy as a right cause. As a multi-ethnic empire, Austria-Hungary struggled until the end to keep its legacy intact and these awards, besides rewarding heroism in combat, were meant to bond their bearers to the Empire.
Keywords: Phaleristics, medals and awards, hat pins, 19th-20th centuries, Austro-Hungarian Empire, First World War.
O matriță pentru turnat bronzuri descoperită în podișul Sucevei
(A bronze casting die uncovered in the Suceava Plateau)
The present study aims to present a casting mould accidentally discovered on the surface of the Late Bronze Age settlement from Mihăiești-Roșia, Suceava County. When compared with the quantity and the typological variety of bronze objects, the number of artefacts related to Bronze Age metallurgy is scarce in the East Carpathian area. The mould was made of gray sandstone, with polished faces and rounded edges. On one side, we can observe the negatives of four knobbed needles and on the other side the shape of a razor. The needles casted in this mould are typical for the Noua culture, and the matrix presented in this study is only the second discovered until now. This type of razor can be found in the north Pontic area, both in hoards and isolated finds attributed to the Sabatinovka culture. Chronologically, the two pieces can be assigned to the Late Bronze Age (period Br. D). Alongside a fragmented casting mould for socketed-axe, previously discovered in the same site, the existence of this matrix suggests that at the end of the Bronze Age, the communities from the East Carpathian area were practicing certain metallurgical activities.
Keywords: casting die, accidental discovery, knobbed needles, razor, Late Bronze Age.
ALEXANDRU BERZOVAN, DUMITRU BOGHIAN, SERGIU-CONSTANTIN ENEA,
Considerații preliminare referitoare la descoperirile getice din stațiunea de la Gănești – Tironu (comuna Ion Neculce, jud. Iași)
(Preliminary considerations regarding the Getic discoveries from Gănești – Tironu archaeological site, Ion Neculce commune, Iași county)
The present paper aims to bring into discussion a series of unpublished archaeological materials, found as a result of numerous field surveys carried out over several years in the site of Gănești – Tironu. Of the discovered material, the largest part is represented by pottery. Most of it is handmade, only a few shards belong to wheel made forms. The vessels are specific to the Getae pottery of the 4th – 3rd centuries BC. It is interesting to note the presence of a few fragments of Poienești – Lukasevka type pottery, related with the historical Bastarnae, and dated from the end of the 3rd century BC. The Hellenistic imports are almost completely absent. Of special interest among the finds is a clay anthropomorphic figurine. These kinds of figurines are well attested in the East-Carpathian territories at the end of the Early Iron Age and the beginning of the Late. They were used most likely in various magical rituals. Despite the shortcomings of analyzing field survey materials, we may still get an interesting glimpse on the life of the rural Getic communities living in the woodlands of the Moldavian Plateau.
Keywords: Iron Age, archaeological survey, pottery, Getae, Moldavian Plateau, clay antropomorphic figurine.
Despre câteva fragmente vitrice de epocă romană timpurie de la Ibida (Slava Rusă), județul Tulcea
(Several Early Roman glass fragments uncovered on the site Ibida, Slava Rusă, Tulcea county)
The author presents four fragments of ancient glass discovered in the ruins of a villa rustica (?) neighbouring the late Roman city of Ibida (4th – 6th century AD). The four fragments belonged to the following shapes of early Roman cutlery, from the 1st and 2nd century AD: 1. Honey comb decorated glass; 2. Lotus buds decorated glass (two pieces); 3. Vegetal ornamented glass. All three glass shapes are very well known and they appear in the nearside of military centres (castra) like Ibida, Durostorum, Noviodunum and Carsium.
Keywords: Ibida; early Roman period; Roman glass.
Amforele descoperite în necropolele de la Braniște și Tîrzia
(Amphorae uncovered within the cemeteries of Braniște and Tîrzia)
Excavations at the Roman era necropoleis of Branişte-Nemţişor and Tîrzia, located on an important road connecting Moldavia with Transylvania to the west and the Lower Danube/Mediterranean to the south, have yielded a variety of amphorae. Their careful study contributes to an understanding of this remote society in terms of market demand and commercial connections. These amphorae belong to two areas of production, one local, the other originating in Pontic and Mediterranean areas. If the former amphorae point to relatively cheap and abundant table wines made in the Moldavian zone, the latter, transported in small containers, suggest the presence of an expensive wine imported by local elites to show their high social status. Among these expensive imports, for example, are amphorae of type Kapitän 2, which were produced in the area of Chios, whose wine was used during funerary rituals. This remote society was able to develop its own local wine production for satisfying a mass population and at the same time to establish a commercial network for importing expensive vintages for enhancing its social and economic power in this region.
Keywords: table amphorae, transport amphorae, Moldavia, necropoleis.
Câteva tipuri de pipe din lut din Dobrogea şi Moldova
(Several clay pipes types from Dobruja and Moldavia)
The rescue archaeological excavations and random discoveries in Hârşova (Constanţa County) and Iaşi city (Pl. I) has led to the identification of several types of clay pipes which proof that tobacco was smoked in the Balkan Peninsula as well as in Romanian territories, since the end of the 17th – beginning of the 18th century. For the classification we used the specific feature of bowl’s shape. Thus, the pipes from Hârşova and Iaşi are Ottoman types and were divided in four groups (R. Robinson and M. Stančeva used three main groups). First group includes pipes with rounded bowl, the second include pipes with the bowl in disk form, the third lily-shaped pipes (or bell-shaped pipes), based on form, decoration and dimension. Thereby, in this article, we analyze the evolution of shapes, styles and the makers’ stamps preserved on these artefacts. The stamps represent the pipe-makers guild which was established in the second half of the 18th – 19th century. The pipes from Hârşova and Iaşi are set in the chronological frame in the end of 17th / beginning of 18th – 19th century.
Keywords: Ottoman clay pipes, stamped pipes, rescue archaeological surveys, Iaşi, Hârşova (Constanţa County), 18th-19th century.
„Archäologie zwischen Römern und Barbaren”. Observații pe marginea unui volum de studii recent apărut
(„Archäologie zwischen Römern und Barbaren”. Some remarks on a recently issued volume of studies)
The project Corpus der römischen Funde im europäischen Barbaricum was launched at the initiative of the German Archaeological Institute, with the goal of publishing in a series of corpora the Roman finds, stretching from north-western Europe to the Black Sea. The corpora which have appeared to date – Germany (7 vols.), Poland (4 vols.), Lithuania (1 vol.), and Hungary (1 vol.) – are essential for becoming acquainted with the Roman imports from outside the Empire. The collective volume published in 2016: Archäologie zwischen Römern und Barbaren. Zur Datierung und Verbreitung römischer Metallarbeiten des 2. und 3. Jh. n.Chr. im Reich und im Barbaricum … (eds.: Hans Ulrich Voss, Nils Müller-Scheeßel) is designed to continue the CRFB project and to unify the existing knowledge regarding the Roman products in Barbaricum and in the neighbouring provincial environment. The volume continues the success of the CRFB catalogues, and has a similar impact on scholarship. Hopefully these new publication will be the starting point for similar endeavours in peripherals and neglected regions of the European Barbaricum.
Keywords: Roman imports, Barbaricum, metal workshops, trade, subsidies, war booty.
ȘTEFAN HONCU, SERGIU-CONSTANTIN ENEA, DUMITRU BOGHIAN,
Amfore romane aflate în colecția Muzeului școlar al Liceului Teoretic „Ion Neculce” din Târgu Frumos (jud. Iași)
(Roman Amphorae in the Ion Neculce Highschool Museum of Târgu Frumos, Iași county)
The authors of this article take into discussion the discoveries of roman amphorae from Buznea, Giurgeşti, Oboroceni and Războieni, Iași county. From typological point o view in this place were identified 4 types of amphorae as follows: types Šelov C and D, Zeest 75 type and type Late Roman Amphorae 2, last two types are attested for the first time in the eastern part of Romania.
Keywords: Moldavia, trade, amphorae, olive oil, wine, fish.
ERGÜN LAFLI, MAURIZIO BUORA,
Byzantine ceramics in the museum of Bursa
The Archaeological Museum of Bursa in Bithynia houses seven pieces of Byzantine ceramics, originating mostly from Bithynia in northern part of western Turkey. In order to give an updated insight into the material a detailed catalogue of these objects will be presented here. This is also a brief contribution to the valorisation of museums in western Turkey and aims to broadening of our knowledge about Byzantine ceramics of Asia Minor.
Keywords: Western Asia Minor, Bursa, Bithynia, Middle Byzantine period, Early Byzantine period, coloured sgraffito ware, ampulla.
COSTEL CHIRIAC, ANGELA SIMALCSIK,
Observații antropologice în legătură cu complexul monahal de la Dumbrăveni, jud. Constanța
(Anthropological remarks pertaining to the monastical complex of Dumbraveni, Constanta county)
The authors present their historical and anthropological observations concerning bone fragments belonging to a person buried in the 4th century AD in the monastical rupestral complex in Dumbraveni, Constanta county, in Dobruja (4th-6th century AD). It is believed that this person, buried inside the rupestral monastery is marked from an anthropological point of view by his natural and social environment. There are obvious resemblances with the burial rituals practiced in the Judaic desert.
Keywords: late Roman Dobruja; rupestrial complex; Christian burials.
Un sistem juridic-administrativ de origine veche germanică reflectat într-o familie lexicală românească (ban, bănat, băni, bănui, bântui) (II)
(A juridical-administrative system of old germanic origin as reflected in a romanian lexical family (ban, bănat, băni, bănui, bântui) (II)
One can rarely find a series of cognates as significant – for both the post-ancient history of Southeast-Central Europe and for the Old Germanic domain – as the Romanian lexical family that includes ban¹ ‘feudal title of nobility’ and ban² ‘coin, money’. It is rather surprising that no one has decisively propounded ultimate Old Germanic origins for those Romanian words as well as for their obvious relatives in neighbouring languages. Such a situation is most probably due to the fact that some earlier (Avar-Turkic-Hungarian) etymological explanations regarding the ban family came to be considered as definitive solutions, so they became a kind of “etymological legends” transmitted from author to author up until the present day. The main point of this study is to demonstrate that the Romanian lexical family represented by terms such as ban, bănat, băni, bănui and bântui (plus many significant derivatives) are far from being just borrowings from the languages of today’s neighbours of the Romanians. In their earliest recorded meanings, the Romanian words under discussion show surprising unity, since they all reflect a proto-feudal juridical-administrative system that can be clarified only by reference to the semantic sphere of Germanic words such as German Bann, Swedish bann or English ban. The general conclusion of this study (divided into two parts, published in two consecutive issues of Arheologia Moldovei) is that Romanian, as continuant of the Vulgar Latin spoken in Southeast Europe, preserved a lexical family based on Old Germanic loans with meanings that look even more archaic than the ones of the ban family (of Frankish origin) which survived in the French language.
Keywords: Southeast-European contacts, Danubian Germanics, proto-feudal relations, historical linguistics, West and East Romance, Aromanian, Albanian.